Book that looks interesting: Fulfillment: Winning and Losing in One-Click America. Instead of making things, many of our biggest companies now distribute things made elsewhere. We’ve moved from an economy of production to one of dispersion. The shift from factory to fulfillment work is core to the American story right now. Economy Amazon
Blockchain is all about deciding between decentralization, security and scalability.
Crucially, rollups are secured by the mainnet, thus not materially sacrificing decentralization. We already have multiple rollup solutions on Ethereum mainnet today -zkSync, Looping, dYdX, zkSwap, DeverseFi, Synthetix staking, ImmutableX etc. All of these require zero gas (not exactly zero, but so low they are subsidized by protocols currently) and can process thousands of transactions per second on Ethereum, with transactions completing in under 1 second, offering us a glimpse of the future.
What was missing is a generalized EVM compatible rollup, where anyone could deploy their smart contracts and scale. We're getting that, finally, with the release of Optimistic Ethereum and Arbitrum (both implementations of optimistic rollups).
Optimistic rollups do have their limitations, all of which are eliminated by the ultimate scalability solution in the blockchain space: ZK Rollups. These use zero-knowledge proofs to validate Layer 2 = Layer 1 trustlessly. Looping, zkSync, dYdX, ImmutableX etc. use ZK Rollups, but are today restricted to specific applications. Projects like StarkNet are hard at work towards a generalized EVM-compatible ZK Rollup.